Dr. Thomas M. Holtgraves

Professor of Psychological Science
Ball State University
Muncie, IN 47306

Office: North Quad 108
Phone: 765-285-1716 

My primary research program investigates the social psychological factors involved in the production and comprehension of language. Much of this research is summarized in Holtgraves, T. (2002).  Current research examines language processing deficits in Parkinson's Disease and the lateralization of speaker meaning.  I have additional research interests in gambling and risk-taking, and personality and information processing.

Recent Presentations:

Holtgraves, T. (2013, July).  “How WEIRD are they? Disentangling psychological and pragmatic processes?”  Universality and Empirical Validity in Pragmatics.  A workshop at the 2013 LSA Linguistic Institute.  Ann Arbor, MI.

Comprehending Conversational Utterances:  Experimental Studies of the Comprehension of Speaker Meaning. ICLASP Invited Presentation, Leeuwarden, Netherlands, June 23, 2012.

Gambling and Gambling Activities:  Motivations and Cognitive Biases.  Columbia University, Seminar on Drugs and Society, May 10, 2011.

Exploring the Psychological Reality of Conversational Implicatures.  Presentation to the Department of Linguistics, University of Illinois, April 22, 2010.

Selected Parkinson's Disease research:


Holtgraves, T., Fogle, K., & Marsh, L. (2013).  Pragmatic language production deficits in  Parkinson’s Disease.  Advances in Parkinson’s Disease, 2, 31-36.


Holtgraves, T., McNamara, P., Durso, R., & Cappaert, K. (2010).  Linguistic correlates of asymmetric motor symptom severity in Parkinson's Disease.  Brain and Cognition, 72 (2), 189-196.


Holtgraves, T., & McNamara, P. (2010).  Pragmatic comprehension deficit in Parkinson’s disease.  Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32 (4), 388-397.


Holtgraves, T., & McNamara, P. (2010).  Parkinson’s Disease and politeness.   Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 29 (2), 178-193.


McNamara , P., Holtgraves, T., Durso, R., & Harris, E. (2010).  Social cognition of indirect speech: Evidence from Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 23(2), 162-171.


Selected social psychology and language publications:

Holtgraves, T. (2014). Editor. Handbook of Language and Social Psychology. Oxford University Press.

Holtgraves, T., (2014). Interpreting uncertainty terms.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107 (2), 219-228. 

Holtgraves, T., & Paul, K. (2013).  Texting versus talking: An exploration in telecommunication language. Telematics and Informatics, online first, February 8, 2013.

Holtgraves, T. (2012).  The role of the right hemisphere in the comprehension of speech acts.  Brain and Language, On-line February 11, 2012.

Holtgraves, T. (2011). Text messaging, personality, and the social context.  Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 92-99.

Holtgraves, T. (2010).  Social psychology and language:  Words, utterances and conversations.  In S. Fiske, D. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology, 5th edition.

Holtgraves, T. M., & Anderson, B. (2009).  Conversational pragmatics and social cognition (pp. 183-201). In H. Pishwa (Ed) Language and social cognition.  Berlin:  Mouton de Gruyter.

Holtgraves, T. & Kashima, Y. (2008). Language, meaning, and social cognition.   Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12, 73-94.

Holtgraves, T. (2008).  Conversation, speech acts, and memory.  Memory & Cognition, 36, 361-374.

Holtgraves, T. M. (2008).  Face and facework in interpersonal communication.  In Francesca Bargiela-Chiappini and Michael Haugh (editors) Face, Communication and Social Interaction (pp. 192-207).  London:  Equinox.

Holtgraves, T. M. (2008). Speaking and Listening.  In: Gert Rickheit & Hans Strohner (Eds.)  Handbook of Applied Linguistics Vol. 1: Communicative Competence of the Individual (pp 207-224).  Berlin:  Mouton de Gruyter.        

Holtgraves, T. (2008).  Automatic intention recognition in conversation processing.  Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 627-645.

Holtgraves, T. (2007).  Second language learners and speech act comprehension.  Language Learning, 57, 595-610.

Holtgraves, T., & Han, T. L.  (2007).  A procedure for studying on-line conversational processing using a chat bot, Behavior Research Methods, 39, 156-163.

Holtgraves, T., Ross, S., Weywadt, C., & Han, T. L. (2007).  Perceiving artificial social agents.  Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 2163-2174.

Holtgraves, T. M. (2006). Conversation memory: Intentions, politeness and the social context (pp. 409-424)  In H. Pishwa (Ed).  Language and memory: Aspects of knowledge representation.  Berlin:  Mouton de Gruyter.

Holtgraves, T. (2005). Diverging interpretations associated with the perspectives of the speaker and recipient in conversations.  Journal of Memory and Language, 53, 551-566.

Holtgraves, T.  (2005).  The production and perception of implicit performatives.  Journal of Pragmatics, 37, 2024-2043.        

Holtgraves, T. M. (2005).  Politeness and social psychology.  Journal of Politeness Research, 1, 73-94.

Holtgraves, T. M. (2005).  Comprehending conversational indirectness in a social context.  In A. Katz & H. Colston (Eds.), Social and cultural factors involved in figurative language processing (pp. 73-98).  Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

 Blankenship, K.,  & Holtgraves, T. (2005).  The role of different markers of linguistic powerlessness in persuasion.  Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24. 3-24.          

Holtgraves, T. M. (2002).  Language as social action:  Social psychology and language use.  Mahwah, NJ:  Erlbaum

Holtgraves, T. M., & Ashley, A. (2001).  Comprehending illocutionary force. Memory & Cognition, 29, 83-90

Holtgraves, T. M. (2000).  Preference organization and reply comprehension. Discourse Processes, 30, 87-106.

Holtgraves, T. M. (1999).  Comprehending indirect replies.  When and how are their conveyed meanings activated?  Journal of Memory and Language, 41, 519-540.

Holtgraves, T. M. (1998a).  Interpreting indirect replies. Cognitive Psychology. 37, 1-27.

Holtgraves, T. M. (1998b). Interpersonal foundations of conversational indirectness. In S. Fussell & R. Kreuz (Eds.), Social and cognitive models of interpersonal communication. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Holtgraves, T. M., & Lasky, B. (1998).  Powerful language and persuasion.  Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 17.

Holtgraves, T. M. (1997a). Styles of language use: Individual and cultural variability in conversational indirectness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 624-637.

Holtgraves, T. M. (1997b). Politeness and memory for the wording of remarks. Memory and Cognition, 25, 106-116.

Holtgraves, T. M. (1997c). Yes, but.......: Positive politeness in conversation arguments. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 16, 222-239.

Holtgraves, T. M., Eck, J., & Lasky, B. (1997). Face management, question wording, and social desirability. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27,1650-1672.

Holtgraves, T. M. (1994). Communication in context: The effects of speaker status on the comprehension of indirect requests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20, 1205-1218.

Holtgraves, T. M. (1992). The linguistic realization of face management: Implications for language production and comprehension, person perception, and cross-cultural communication. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55, 141-159.

Holtgraves, T. M., & Dulin, J. (1994). The Muhammad Ali effect: Differences between African Americans and European Americans in their perceptions of a truthful bragger. Language and Communication, 14, 275-285.

Holtgraves, T. M., & Grayer, A. (1994). I am not a crook: Effects of denials on perceptions of a defendant's guilt, personality and motives. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 2132-2150.

Holtgraves, T. M. & Raymond, S. (1995). Implicit causality and memory: Evidence for a priming model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 5-12.

Holtgraves, T. M., Srull, T., & Socall, D. (1989). Journal Conversation memory: The effects of speaker status on memory for the assertiveness of conversation remarks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 149-160.

Holtgraves, T., & Yang, J. (1992). The interpersonal underpinnings of request strategies: General principles and differences due to culture and gender. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 246-256.

Holtgraves, T., & Yang, J. (1990). Politeness as universal: Cross-cultural perceptions of request strategies and inferences based on their use. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 719-729.


Selected gambling publications:

Holtgraves, T. (2009). Evaluating the problem gambling severity index. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25, 105-120.

Holtgraves, T. (2009). Gambling, gambling activities, and problem gambling.
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23, 295-302.

Holtgraves, T. M., & Skeel, J. (1992). Cognitive biases in playing the lottery: Estimating the odds and choosing the numbers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, 9344-952.

Holtgraves, T. M. (1988). Gambling as self-presentation. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4,78-91.


Selected personality and information processing publications:

Holtgraves, T. (in press).  Cognitive consequences of individual differences in arousal  asymmetry.  Brain and Cognition.

Simon-Dack, S., Holtgraves, T.,  Marsh, L. & Fogle, K. (in press).  Resting electroencephalography correlates of pseudoneglect: an individual differences approach.  NeuroReport.

Holtgraves, T., & Felton, A. (2010).  Hemispheric Asymmetry in the Processing of Negative and Positive Words:  A Divided Field Study.  Cognition and Emotion.  First  published on: 07 July 2010 (iFirst).

Holtgraves, T. M. (2004).  Social desirability and self-reports: Testing models of socially desirable responding.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 30, 161-172.

Ashley, A., & Holtgraves, T. M. (2002).  Repressors and memory: Effects of self-deception, impression management, and mood.  Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 284-296.

Holtgraves, T. M. & Athanassopoulou, M. (1991). Depression and processing information about others. Journal of Research in Personality, 25, 445-453.

Holtgraves, T. M., & Hall, R. (1995). Repressors: What do they repress and how do they repress it? Journal of Research in Personality, 29, 306-317.

Holtgraves, T. M., & Stockdale, (1997). The assessment of dissociative experiences in a nonclinical sample: Reliability, validity, and factor structure of the dissociative experiences scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 699-706.