Lecture Outlines - Fall 2013


1. Oct. 16: Perceived Control;  Take and score locus of control scale

            Internal vs. External locus of control


                Cultural and SEC differences

2.  Oct. 18: Perceived control continued

            General process

                People sometime overestimate control due to:

                     Motivational reasons (e.g., belief in a just world)

                     Cognitive reasons

                         Illusion of control

                         Illusory correlation

3.  Oct. 23:  Cognitive approaches:  George Kelly

         Fundamental Motivation

         Constructive Alternativism


            Act on basis of interpretations

            Need to categorize; people abstract constructs (bipolar categories) from experience

            Individual differences

                 Types of constructs

                  Number of constructs

                  Construct end-points

                  Construct organization

             Construct assessment - rep-role grid

               Constructs can change  

               Theraputic uses

               Research uses - friendship formation



 4.  Oct. 25:  Cognitive approaches continued; 

                      Schema theory

                         Memory effects 

                         Perception effects

                         Impact on interactions

5.  Oct. 28:  Begin discussion of self;  Take SE and BDI

Basic concepts

  I vs Me

    Me = self-concept - material me, social me, spiritual me 

    Self-schema:  organization;  processing info about others 

    Self-esteem - evaluation of self-concept attributes multiplied by their importance

6.  Oct. 30:  Self continued

Self-esteem issues      

         - is self-esteem stable or unstable?

          - is high self-esteem always good?  Does it predict academic performance, delinquency, drug use, etc.?

              Self-esteem and depression

                Self-discrepancy theory -

                Real - Ideal - Ought discrepancies predict anxiety and depression

7.  Nov. 1:

   Cultural differences in self

        Individualism vs. Collectivism


Mead - social interaction - reciprocal role taking


  1. Isolated chimps flunk rouge test - no self

  2. Myomoto & Dornbush - self ratings best predicted by beliefs about perceptions of people in general

  3. Mr. Clean & Mr. Dirty: a mere presence effect

Strategies to avoid influence of others

  1. Choose with whom to interact

  2. Choose with whom to compare

  3. Interpret others actions more positively than intended

  4. Behavioral confirmation.

 Self Presentation

Goffman's theory

  1. Everything carries identity implications

   2. Take into account implications and act to convey desired image.


  Habitual and deliberate

  Always self-presenting?

  Sometimes present negative images

8.  Nov. 4:   Take SM and SC scales

Self-monitoring - individual differences in self-presentation

   High self-monitors are actors, better at recognizing/expressing emotions, better person

    memory, more affected by soft-sell ads, difficult to predict.

9. Nov. 6: Group day;  discuss research projects

10.  November 8

Self-consciousness and self-awareness

Situational differences:

Self-awareness vs. Deindividuation

Individual differences

  Private self-consciousness - inward focus

  Public self-consciousness - concern with others' impressions

  Social anxiety

High private: greater self-knowledge, increased likelihood of depression, greater likelihood

of alcohol use following negative feedback